AHA Complex: Natural Alpha Hydroxy Acids of Apple extract and Sugar extract exfoliate skin cells are combined by breaking down the intercellular glue-like substance that helps bind skin cells together with Green Tea which acts as a antioxidant and anti-inflammatory for the skin.

Alanine: An amino acid produced naturally in the body, when used in skin care it offers antioxidant and wound healing benefits.

Algae Extract: Acts to normalize the skin’s moisture content and provide suppleness to the epidermis. Also contains antioxidant properties.

Algae Oil: A natural moisturizer obtained from seaweed that boosts the natural detoxifying function of the skin.

Allantoin: Derived from Comfrey Root and known for its healing, soothing, and anti-irritating properties, Allantoin softens the skin and stimulates the formation of healthy tissue. Helps eliminate chapping and cracking, leaves skin silky, smooth, and healthy-looking. Also found in wheat germ and rice casings, among other sources.

Aloe Vera Extract/Juice (Aloe Barbadensis Leaf): Aloe Vera contains 99.5% water, and is very hydrating to the skin. Important properties for skin include: anti-irritant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, healing and softening.

Alpha-Hydroxy Acids (AHA): AHAs exfoliate dead skin cells by breaking down the intercellular glue-like substance that helps bind skin cells together  and moisturize the skin. All AHAs contained in Astara’s formulations are naturally derived from plant sources.

Antioxidants: Vitamins, amino acids and other natural substances that fight free radicals to prevent oxidation. In biological systems, the normal processes of oxidation produce free radicals, which are aggressive, unstable, oxygen-containing molecules that have lost an electron and need to steal one from another molecule to regain stability. This creates a chain reaction damaging each cell involved. Free radicals damage cell membranes and normal cellular metabolism. This cell damage leads to premature aging, increased skin sensitivity, irritation, age spots and dryness. Applied topically, antioxidants neutralize free radicals before they are able to attach themselves to the cell membrane and damage the cell.

Arginine: An amino acid with antioxidant and wound healing benefits.

Arnica (Montana Flower Extract): A plant containing many beneficial chemical compounds, including oils and fatty acids. Stimulates the immune response to treat skin inflammation, acne, and bruises.

Aspartic Acid: An amino acid produced naturally in the body, and when used in skin care offers antioxidant and wound healing benefits.

Avocado Oil: A natural emollient, rich in vitamins A, B1, B2, D and E. Highly compatible with skin and is used for its moisturizing properties.

Bentonite: Silicate clay that draws impurities from the skin.

Bergamot Oil (Citrus Aurantium Bergamia): Essential oil derived from the cold pressed peel of nearly ripe fruit of the Bergamot Tree. Benefits include antiseptic, balancing, deodorizing, refreshing, stimulating, and warming properties.

Beta Glucan: A complex sugar derived from plant sources such as oat and barley. It removes cellular debris resulting from oxidative damage, speeds up the recovery of damaged tissue and activates the immune system.

Bioflavonoids: Plant pigments whose potent antioxidant powers keep fruits and vegetables from turning brown. They continue to act as powerful antioxidants in the body, and are considered by some to be more effective free-radical scavengers than vitamins C and E. They are essential for the stability and absorption of vitamin C, one of the key collagen-building catalysts. They are found in apricots, cherries, cantaloupe, papaya, grape seed extract, citrus fruits, black tea, onions, parsley, legumes, red wine, red grapes, and all blue and purple berries.

Biogenic: Biogenic Skincare™ is based on the philosophy that life supports life.

Biotin: A water soluble vitamin produced in the body also known as vitamin H. Biotin is part of the B complex group of vitamins which are essential to amino acid production within the skin.

Birch Bark Extract (Betula Lenta): Potent antioxidant with astringent benefits.

Bisabolol (Matricaria Recutita): The primary constituent of the essential oil from the Chamomile plant with anti-irritant, anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial properties.

Black Willow Tree Bark Extract (Juglans Nigra Leaf): A potent antiseptic and astringent with anti-inflammatory properties. Testing has shown that the extract has activity against Staphylococcus Aureus and Propionibacterium Acnes, the two types of bacteria that cause the formation of acne.

Bladderwrack Extract (Fucus Vesiculosus): High in nutritional minerals and trace elements, this red algae extract stimulates circulation and tones skin.

Borage Oil (Borago Officinalis): Also known as Starflower Oil which is one of the richest sources of fatty acids, vitamins and minerals. It regenerates new skin cells, treats eczema, and promotes normal healthy skin function.

Cajeput Oil (Melaleuca Leucadendron): A tall evergreen tree closely related to eucalyptus and tea tree, cajeput oil is distilled from the leaves and twigs and has similar anti-microbial qualities to tea tree oil.

Calcium Gluconate: An essential mineral for the body and beneficial for its anti-inflammatory and healing properties.

Calendula (Marigold): Contains antifungal, antiseptic and astringent properties. Active constituents include high amounts of flavonoids, which are anti-inflammatory and antibacterial.

Caramel: A natural coloring agent.

Carbomer: A thickening agent used primarily to create gel-like formulations.

Carrot Seed Oil: An essential oil that is steam distilled from the seeds of the carrot plant, containing a high content of vitamin A and carotenes. It stimulates circulation, improves elasticity and tone, repairs damaged tissue and combats the formation of wrinkles and scars.

Castor Oil: Thick oil expressed from the Castor Bean. Used externally, it forms a protective barrier between the skin and harsh environmental conditions. It also acts as a humectant, drawing moisture from the air into the skin.

Centella Asiatica (Gotu Kola): An herb native to India, which is used both internally and topically and referred to as ‘the elixir of life’. It calms stressed sensitive skin and speeds the healing of wounds, dermatitis and inflammation.

Cetyl Alcohol: Used as an emollient, emulsifier, thickener, and carrying agent for other ingredients.  Derived naturally from coconut and is not related to SD Alcohol or Ethyl Alcohol

Chamomile (Anthemis Nobilis Flower Oil): An extract from the flowers and leaves of Anthemis Nobilis which reduces inflammation and soothes sensitive skin.

Chondrus Crispus (Carrageen): Has both emollient and soothing properties along with antiinflammatory and anti-microbial effects and contains an abundance of mineral salts, trace elements, proteins, and vitamins.

Coconut Extract (Cocos Nucifera): Easily absorbed by the skin and contains many beneficial nourishing and hydrating properties.

Colloidal Oatmeal: Helps to relieve dry skin conditions such as Eczema, Psoriasis, Acne, bug bites, sunburns, and other skin irritations.

Comfrey (Symphytum Officinale): The leaves and flowers of this perennial herb are used topically for their anti-irritant, antiseptic, emollient, and regenerative properties. Comfrey is a powerful antiinflammatory and contains a high level of Allantoin, which stimulates new cell growth.

Compound: A thing that is composed of two or more elements; a mixture

Cucumber Extract: Has a natural cooling and soothing effect.

D-Cholic Acid: A natural acid that helps reduce excess sebum.

D-Beta Fructan: Helps to enhance synthesis of the cellular structure and promotes more water uptake in cells. Attracted to the fluids that flow along the basal layer of the skin and allows the Langerhans cells to expand with the increased water uptake, thereby plumping the skin.

D-Beta Glucosamine: Strengthens the skin’s immune system, helps to promote production of connective tissue and aids the healing process.

Dead Sea Salts: Obtained from the Dead Sea in Israel, and composed of salts of Potassium, Chlorine, Sodium, Calcium, Magnesium as well as Sulfur and Bromine compounds. These salts are famous for their reviving, toning and purifying qualities.

Diatomaceous Earth: Organic silica-based minerals from the ocean floor that act as a physical buffing agent to exfoliate dead skin cells.

Dimethiconol: Substance derived from silica. The unique fluid properties of silicone give it a great deal of slip and, in its various forms, it can feel like silk on the skin, impart emolliency, and be a water-binding agent that holds up well even when skin becomes wet. It is also used extensively for wound healing and for improving the appearance of scars.

Echinacea: Its antibacterial properties stimulate wound healing and improve skin conditions such as burns, psoriasis, acne and eczema. Topical application has shown to decrease inflammation and promote tissue regeneration.

Emollient: An ingredient that softens the skin. Similar in structure to natural lipids found in the skin, helps prevent dryness, soothes irritated skin, and smoothes rough skin.

Enzymes: Complex proteins which are produced by living cells within the human body, and available externally through the ingestion of raw foods. Enzymes are responsible for all functions within the body and depleted levels of enzymes result in chronic conditions such as inflammation, constipation and poor skin function. As we age the body loses its ability to manufacture enzymes, so it becomes more critical to obtain them from outside sources, including skin care products.

Essential Oils: Delicate and rapidly evaporating oils obtained from the leaves, stem, flower, seed or root of a plant, usually carrying the odor characteristic of that plant. Essential oils add fragrance to skin care products, and contribute to their therapeutic qualities through their various abilities to tone, balance, relax, cleanse and invigorate.

Ethylhexylglycerin: A synthetic compound derived from grains and plants which acts as a surfactant and preservative, often used instead of parabens.

Eucalyptus Oil (Eucalyptus Globulus): Derived from the leaves of the Eucalyptus tree, this stimulating anti-fungal and antiseptic oil is valued for its penetrating fragrance, and is used for its soothing and refreshing properties.

Evening Primrose Oil (Oenothera Biennis): An anti-inflammatory that also improves skin hydration.

Frankincense (Olibanum Essential Oil): Astringent, rejuvenating and extremely healing to dry, aging, and damaged skin.

Fucus Vesiculosus (Bladderwrack): A type of brown algae used to tone the skin, stimulate cell activity and activate fat metabolism. Oxygenating, promotes circulation.

Geranium Oil (Geranium Maculatum): Has powerful antioxidant benefits, as well as antiseptic, anti-bacterial and anti-fungal properties. Promotes cell regeneration, stimulates lymph and circulatory systems. Uplifting and stress-reducing scent.

Glycerin: A humectant and extremely hydroscopic, meaning it readily absorbs water from other sources. One of the many substances in skin that help maintain the outer barrier and prevent dryness or scaling.

Glycolic Acid: A naturally occurring Alpha Hydroxy Acid derived from sugar. It helps to speed up cell turnover and renewal. Its small molecular weight and size allow it to penetrate skin effectively.

Ginkgo Biloba: Improves blood flow, including microcirculation in small capillaries, tissues and organs. It is also a potent antioxidant.

Ginseng (Panex): A slow-growing perennial with antioxidant properties that increases and reduces stress. Aids inincreasins skins' elasticity. Very rejuvenating, exygenating and stimulating.

Goldenseal (Hydrastis Canadensis): Traditionally used by Native Americans to treat skin disorders, digestive problems, liver conditions, diarrhea, and eye irritations, it is also used topically to heal skin wounds.

Grapefruit Peel Oil (Citrus Grandis): Used in aromatherapy for its aromatic scent, it also has antiseptic properties.

Grape Seed Extract (Vitis Vinifera): A rich source of bioflavonoids and a potent antioxidant and is widely used in hypoallergenic moisturizers due to its compatibility with sensitive skin.

Green Tea Extract (Camellia Sinensis): A natural antioxidant, rich in natural chemicals known as polyphenols. A potent antioxidant shown to neutralize free radicals generated from inflammatory conditions. Its anti-bacterial properties are great for problematic skin types.

Guava Extract: An excellent source of vitamin C, which aids in healing wounds and skin irritations, and also combats inflammation.

Hazelnut Oil (Corylus Avellana): A lightweight, slightly astringent and toning oil which is beneficial for all skin types.

Hibiscus Extract: Contains antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Provides tightening effect without stripping skin of natural oils. Moisturizing and refreshing.

Hops (Humulus Lupulus): Provides anti-inflammatory and mild firming benefits to the skin. Very effective on acne prone skin.

Horse Chestnut (Aesculus): Helps soothe redness and inflammation that often accompanies oily, congested, blemish prone skin. Strengthens and repairs vein and capillary function and improves circulation in the skin, promoting clear skin, even complexion and good skin tone.

Hyaluronic Acid: Also known as sodium hyaluronate. The natural occurring substance in skin that first attracts then locks water in the dermis, giving skin its thickness and reducing the appearance of wrinkles and lines. A complex molecule found naturally in the fluid between skin cells, it can hold up to 1000 times its own weight in water. Allows skin to retain suppleness and plumping in the skin. Very anti-aging.

Hydrolyzed Rice Bran Protein: An emollient which has been shown to reduce puffiness and is often used in eye treatments.

Hydroxyethylcellulose: A plant-derived thickening agent typically used as a binding agent or emulsifier.

Jasmine Oil (Jasminum Officinale): Helps to soothe and moisturize, with emotional balancing properties for the senses.

Jojoba Bio Beads: Used as a manual exfoliant, these gentle exfoliating beads are the perfect alternative to polyethylene beads or ground shell exfoliants, which can scratch or irritate the skin.

Jojoba Esters: Bearing a remarkable similarity to sebum produced by the body, it is well absorbed by and extremely beneficial to skin for its emollient properties and natural moisturizing factors.

Jojoba Oil (Simmondsia Chinensis): Moisturizes and softens the skin.

Juniper Oil (Juniperus Communis): Antiseptic, detoxifying, toning and astringent. Used primarily for oily or sluggish skin.

Kaolin: Finely textured, light colored clay with excellent absorbent, tightening and toning properties. Considered a noncomedogenic, raw material.

Kirlian Electrophotography: Developed through the early work of Michael Faraday, Nikola Tesla, Thomas Edison and finally in the 1930’s by Russian physicist, S.D. Kirlian. It measures the life-force energy radiating from a living organism or material. If life force does not exist, there will be no visible radiation coming from the subject being photographed. On the other hand, the more alive the subject is, the greater its visible energy field will be and its capability to beneficially effect other life.

Lactic Acid: A naturally occurring alpha hydroxy acid derived from the fermentation of beets. This natural acid helps speed up cell turnover and renewal. This acid has a large molecule making it gentle and excellent for sensitive skin. Improves fine lines, wrinkles and hyperpigmentation.

Laminaria: Also known as kelp, it smoothes skin and treats irritation.

Lavender Water (hydrolat): Provides hydration and balance for all skin types.

Lavender Oil (Lavandula Angustifolia): Normalizes all skin types and used for its anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiseptic, soothing and healing qualities.

Lemon Peel Oil: Obtained by cold pressing of the lemon peel. It has antiseptic, astringent, bactericide, detoxifying, cooling, healing, lymphatic stimulant and rejuvenating properties.

Lemongrass Oil: Has powerful antiseptic and anti-bacterial properties and is used in traditional Indian medicine. Considered an astringent and tonic.

Listea Cubeba Oil (May Chang): Has an uplifting scent, similar to Lemongrass, and relaxing qualities with antiseptic, astringent and disinfectant properties.

Mandarin Orange Peel Oil (Citrus Nobilis): An immune and lymphatic stimulant that also supports tissue regeneration and detoxification, reduces scarring and stretch marks, and is used to nurture dry, mature, and dull skin. Balances oily skin, heals acne and reduces puffiness.

Mango Extract (Mangifera Indica): A potent antioxidant, high in Vitamin A, C and Beta Carotene which is used to prevent dryness and the formation of wrinkles by reducing the degeneration of skin cells.

Marsh Mallow (Althea Officinalis Root): Used as a thickening agent in cosmetics and has both anti-inflammatory and soothing properties.

Meadowfoam (Limnanthes Alba): Its seed oil is used as a skin-conditioning agent. Fights free radicals, analgesic and anti-inflammatory.

Melaleuca Oil: See Tea Tree oil.

Menthol Crystals: Used for its stimulating and cooling properties.

Molecule: The smallest amount of specific chemical substance that can exist alone.

Micronized Sea Clays: Natural drawing action removes impurities from the pores, leaving the skin clean, clear, detoxified and stimulated.

Milk Thistle Extract (Silybum Adans): Also known as Silymarin, it contains strong detoxifying and antioxidant properties.

Mushroom Extract (Fomes Officinalis): A natural astringent shown to improve skin firmness as it diminishes the appearance of pores.

Natural: Ingredients that are extracted directly from plants or animal products as opposed to being produced synthetically.

Natural Botanical: A substance derived from plants.

Neroli Oil: Has a refreshing and distinctive, spicy aroma with sweet and flowery notes. Relieves tension and anxiety and also increases circulation Niacin: Known as vitamin B3, a water-soluble vitamin that helps remove toxins from the skin. Stimulates cell regeneration. Used for sensitive and delicate skin.

Niaouli (Melaleuca Quinquenervia): An antiseptic, bactericidal found in large Evergreen trees which are native to Australia.

Oakroot Extract: Has soothing and anti-inflammatory properties.

Oat Flour: Gentle and soothing to the skin; relieves dry, itchy skin and helps absorb excessive oils.

Olive (Olea Europaea): An emollient plant oil with anti-aging properties and excellent antioxidant benefits. Stimulates collagen, elastin, proteoglycans adn glycoproteins.

Organic: Produce grown without pesticides, herbicides or synthetic fertilizers.

Owyhee Oil (Artemisia Ludoviciana): A soothing, healing and anti-inflammatory emollient used in skin care for its relaxing effect to the senses

Palmarosa: A wild grass that moisturizes the skin, while balancing hydration levels and stimulating cell regeneration. It balances production of sebum to keep the skin supple and is a valuable treatment for acne, dermatitis and scarring.

Papain (Papaya): Contains natural enzymes which help to break down the protein layers between skin cells to exfoliate skin.

Papaya Extract: see above (Papain).

Passionfruit Extract (Passiflora Incarnata): Used for its calming and balancing properties.

Pennywort or Gotu Kola (Centella Asiatica): Beneficial for treating inflammatory skin conditions such as eczema and dermatitis.

Pettigrain Oil: See Mandarin Orange Peel oil.

Phenoxyethanol: An organic chemical compound and common cosmetic preservative that is considered less irritating then many others that are used in skin care products.

Pineapple Fruit Extract: Contains the enzyme bromelain, which helps to break down the protein layers between skin cells to exfoliate skin.

Pine Tree Extract (Pinus Taeda): A powerful antioxidant that nourishes collagen fibers and improves elasticity and firmness in the skin.

Phospholipids: Natural substances found in all living cells that help draw water from the air and seal moisture into the skin.

Plant Derived Sodium Hyaluronate: see Hyaluronic Acid.

Pomegranate Extract (Granatum): Considered effective as an anti-carcinogen and antioxidant when taken orally, and has been shown to fight free radical damage when used in skin care.

Preservative: These are compounds that destroy harmful bacteria, yeast, or moulds. Thereby keeping the product from going bad. Antioxidants and stablizers can also be called preservatives since they slow down the chemical breakdown of the ingredients in a skincare product.

Proline: Also referred to as amino acids, Proline acts primarily as a water-binding agent, with beneficial antioxidant properties and wound-healing abilities. Found int he collagen molecule.

Pro-Vitamin B5: Helps restore healthy tissue, stimulates skin healing, soothes irritated skin and provides deep moisturization.

Raspberry Fruit: A strong antioxidant and source of lycopenes. Botanical properties are described as astringent.

Red Clover (Trifolium Pratense): Valued for its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, calming, and cleansing properties. Beneficial for acne and eczema.

Resorcinol: Naturally derived from wood bark, acts as an antiseptic and disinfectant. Can act as an agressive exfoliant.

Retinol Palmitate: A combination of retinol (pure vitamin A) and palmitic acid. There is research showing it to be effective as an antioxidant and skin-cell regulator. Increases epidermal thickness, increases elasticity and very stimulating.

Rosewater (Hydrolat): Has regenerating and soothing properties for all skin types. Astringent and cleansing properties.

Rose Oil: soothing oil with gentle cleansing properties which has a softening and refining effect on the skin. It is antiseptic and mildly astringent for dry or chapped skin, helping to restore pH.

Rosehip Seed (Rosa Mosqueta): The fruit of the rose is a berry-like structure called a rose hip. An effective emollient which contains vitamins A, D and E along with antioxidants and flavonoids and is among the richest sources of Vitamin C of any plant. Pure Rosehip Oil contains around 75% fatty acids, which help maintain healthy skin and reduce the appearance of pores.

Rosemary (Rosemarinus Officinalis): Stimulates cell renewal, used to clear acne and blemishes, improve circulation and reduce the appearance of broken capillaries and varicose veins.

Rosewood: Rosewood is a cell regenerator, which makes it especially good for mature, wrinkled, sensitive and acneic skin. It also contains antiseptic properties to treat acne and dermatitis.

Royal Jelly: Contains Vitamins A, B, C, D, E, and K, minerals, amino acids and other important constituents including collagen. It is complete nutrition for the skin and is used to prevent wrinkles and heal acne.

Ruby Grapefruit Oil: Obtained by cold pressing of the peels. It has anti-bacterial, antioxidant and detoxifying properties and is also beneficial for toning the skin and tissue. Grapefruit oil clears the mind and uplifts the spirit. It is refreshing and reviving.

Saccharomyces Lysate Extract: Derived from yeast and reduces puffiness and increases circulation. Healing and protecting.

Sage (Salvia Officinalis): Antiseptic, anti-fungal and anti-inflammatory.

Safflower Oil (Carthamus tinctorius): Emollient plant oil similar to all non-fragrant plant oils, with antioxidant properties. Non-comedongenic. Raw materail obtained from plants and seeds.

Salicylic Acid: Referred to as Beta Hydroxy Acid (BHA), it is a multifunctional ingredient that addresses many of the systemic causes of blemishes, causes gentle exfoliation, aids in clearing the pores and has anti-inflammatory properties. Improves the look and feel of skin by dissolving the top layer of corneum cells.

Sandalwood Oil (Santalum Album): Helps reduce tension and anxiety, and is moisturizing to dry skin. Astringent, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, cooling, stimulant and soothing properties.

Sea Clay: Contains a high concentration of minerals that draw oils from the skin, and is rich in macro and micro minerals. Detoxifying and cooling to the skin.

Serine: Silk protein which offers an emollient base to products.

Shea Butter (Butyrospermum Parkii): Also known as Karite Butter, a natural fat obtained from the fruit of the Karite tree in West Africa. It is deeply penetrating, rejuvenating and protective, with superior skin conditioning abilities. It has mild antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties. And is rich in vitamins A and E, and the antioxidant Beta-Carotene. Restores skin's suppleness. Increases moisturization and improves irritated skin.

Silica: see Diatomaceous Earth.

Sodium Hyaluronate: see Hyaluronic acid.

Sodium Lactate: Is the sodium salt in Lactic Acid, and offers anti-microbial action. Often used as an effective preservative in skin care.

Sodium PCA: Derived from amino acids, a high-performance humectant due to its moisturebinding ability and is recommended for dry, delicate and sensitive skins.

Soybean Oil (Soya): Emollient plant oil similar to all non-fragrant plant oils, with antioxidant properties. Stimulates collagen sythesis and elastin.

Soy Phospholipids: Composed of glycerol, fatty acids, and phosphate, and essential to the function of cell membranes by providing a stable surrounding structure.

Spin Trap (Phenyl-N-Butyl Nitrone): One of the most powerful free radical scavengers. Instead of destroying the free radical it traps it and exports it back into the respiratory cycle where it is utilized in tissue respiration.

Spirulina: A type of algae (see Algae extract). Hydrating effect on skin's surface layers. Stimulates fibroblast cells and tissue regeneration.

Squalane: A natural component of the skin, naturally derived from olives, Squalane acts as an emollient that prevents water evaporation from the skin. Excellent moisturizer and lubricant. Can reduce skin irritants.

Strawberry Extract (Fragaria Chiloensis): When derived from the root, offers astringent properties, as well as Malic and Citric acids.

Sugar Cane Extract (Saccharum Officinarum): see Alpha-Hydroxy acid.

Sunflower (Helianthus Annuus): Contains high amounts of Oleic Acid, which is a fatty acid used as a surfactant and thickening agent. Considered a non-comedogenic raw material.

Superoxide Dismutase: An enzyme with potent antioxidant properties. Fights off free radicals.

Surfactant: These are wetting ingredients. They lower waters surface tension permitting it to spread out and penetrate more easily.

Sweet Almond Oil (Prunus dulcis): A super emollient and nourishing oil.

Sweet Orange Peel Oil: Used to stimulate circulation, clear blemishes, and increase perspiration, thus assisting the release of toxins from dull or blemished skin.

Synthetic: Made entirely of artifical means and not found in matter. Usually derived from crude oil, coal tar, or minerals.

Tangerine Extract (Citrus Reticulata): The essential oil is cold pressed from the peel of the fruit. It is beneficial to the skin by reducing stretch marks and cellulite. It is a good source of vitamin C, Folate, Beta-Carotene, B1, B2 and B3. Antispasmodic and sedative properties.

Tea Tree Oil (Melaleuca Alternifolia): An essential oil derived from the leaves and twigs of a tree related to the Eucalyptus family. It is active against all three varieties of infectious organisms: bacteria, viruses and fungi, producing a powerful general antiseptic. Tea Tree oil is very effective in fighting infection. Its disinfecting properties are particularly effective against the bacteria that cause blemishes.

Thyme Extract (Thymus Vulgaris): Extract derived from the Thyme plant with potent antioxidant properties. Antiseptic, tonic, antibacterial and stimulates circulation.

Titanium Dioxide: A natural mineral that protects skin from UVA and UVB radiation with little or no irritation.

Totara Tree Essence: Indigenous to New Zealand, contains potent antioxidants and provides healing to blemish prone skin. Totara Tree Essence reduces bacteria and offers anti-fungal and anti-microbial benefits. Studies show very low doses ensure 1000 fold reduction in visible bacteria over a contact time of one hour.

Tumeric: Spice made from the dried, ground root of the plant, its extract is called Curcumin. A natural yellow food coloring that has potent antioxidant and wound healing properties, and acts as an antibacterial agent. Anti-inflammatory. Tonic and mildly stimulating. Useful for acneic skin types.

Ultramarine Blue: Natural pigment derived from mineral sources.

Ultramarine Violet: Natural pigment derived from mineral sources.

Vegetable Glycerin: A highly effective humectant present in all natural lipids, which attracts water to skin to maintain balance. Strengthens the skins intercellular layer and forms a natural barrier that retains moisture.

Vitamin A (Retinol Palmitate): A fat-soluble antioxidant essential to the maintenance and repair of tissue. Stimulates new skin cells and inhibits the body's natural enzymes that break down collagen, and help to prevent premature wrinkling.

Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid): An antioxidant vitamin necessary for tissue growth and repair, as well as collagen formation. One of the best free radical scavengers, it combats free radicals triggered by both the body and the environment and works synergistically with vitamin E.

Vitamin D3: Contains antioxidant properties.

Vitamin E Acetate: An ester form of vitamin E.

Vitamin E (Tocopherol): The first recognized fat-soluble antioxidant usable in skin care products. Vitamin E is a potent antioxidant particularly good at defending against and disabling free radicals. Essential to tissue repair, it works synergistically with vitamin C.

Wheat Amino Acids: A fundamental constituent of all proteins which work primarily as waterbinding agents, with antioxidant properties and wound-healing abilities.

White Tea Extract (Camellia Sinensis): A powerful antioxidant processed differently than Green Tea, yet works synergistically with Green Tea.

White Lily (Numphaea Alba Root Extract): White Lotus extract adds moisture, relaxes and soothes muscle tissue, and provides a relaxing euphoric sensation.

Wild Yam (Dioscorea Villosa): Helps to increase collagen production and minimize collagen breakdown.

Witch Hazel (Hamamelis Virginiana): An extract from the bark of the Witch Hazel Tree with proven astringent, toning, and anti-inflammatory effects. Also dissolves excess sebum without stripping skin.

Yeast Extract (Saccharomyces Cerevisia): A source of Beta-Glucan, which is considered a potent antioxidant and wound healing agent.

Ylang Ylang Oil (Cananga Odorata): Has antiseptic, softening, smoothing, rejuvenating, calming, and soothing properties.